Key Points to Remember in Pediatrics | NEET PG & AIAPGET | Dr Himanshu

Here is a list of pediatric clinical signs with brief explanations.

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Here is a list of pediatric clinical signs with brief explanations:

Neurological Signs

  1. Kernig’s Sign – Pain on knee extension, indicating meningitis.
  2. Brudzinski’s Sign – Neck flexion causes hip/knee flexion, indicating meningitis.
  3. Babinski Reflex – Toes fan upward when sole is stroked, normal in infants, abnormal in adults.
  4. Moro Reflex – Infant startles, extends arms, then retracts them.
  5. Grasp Reflex – Infant grasps objects placed in hand.
  6. Gower’s Sign – Difficulty rising from the floor, indicating muscular dystrophy.
  7. Bulging Fontanelle – Swelling of soft spot on head, indicating increased intracranial pressure.
  8. Head Lag – Head falls back when infant is pulled to sit, indicating neurological issues.
  9. Parachute Reflex – Arms extend to prevent fall when infant is held upright and moved toward a surface.
  10. Chvostek’s Sign – Facial twitch when tapping facial nerve, indicating hypocalcemia.
  11. Trousseau’s Sign – Carpal spasm after inflating a blood pressure cuff, indicating hypocalcemia.

Respiratory Signs

  1. Silverman-Anderson Score – Assessment of respiratory distress in neonates.
  2. Grunting – A sound made during exhalation, indicating respiratory distress.
  3. Nasal Flaring – Widening of nostrils during breathing, indicating respiratory distress.
  4. Steeple Sign – Subglottic narrowing on an X-ray, indicating croup.
  5. Tachypnea – Rapid breathing, indicating respiratory or metabolic issues.
  6. Tracheal Tug – Downward movement of trachea with inspiration, indicating respiratory distress.

Cardiovascular Signs

  1. Murmur – Abnormal heart sounds, indicating heart valve issues.
  2. Tet Spells – Cyanotic episodes in children with Tetralogy of Fallot.
  3. Venous Hum – Continuous murmur heard over the jugular vein, usually benign.

Gastrointestinal Signs

  1. Rooting Reflex – Infant turns head toward cheek stroke, helps with feeding.
  2. Pyloric Stenosis – Projectile vomiting in infants due to narrowing of pylorus.
  3. Meconium Aspiration – Respiratory distress from inhalation of meconium-stained amniotic fluid.
  4. Epstein Pearls – Small white cysts on gums, benign.
  5. Milian’s Ear Sign – Erythema of the ear in erysipelas infection.

Musculoskeletal Signs

  1. Allis’ Sign – Uneven knee heights, indicating hip dislocation.
  2. Ortolani Maneuver – Hip clunk with abduction, indicating hip dysplasia.
  3. Barlow Maneuver – Hip dislocation with adduction and pressure, indicating hip dysplasia.
  4. Scarf Sign – Elbow crosses midline easily, indicating hypotonia or preterm birth.
  5. Trendelenburg Sign – Pelvic drop on one side when standing, indicating hip dysfunction.

Dermatological Signs

  1. Café-au-lait Spots – Light brown skin patches, associated with neurofibromatosis.
  2. Blueberry Muffin Rash – Blue/purple spots on skin, indicating congenital infections.
  3. Harlequin Sign – Transient half-body color change in newborns.
  4. Erythema Toxicum – Common newborn rash with red spots and white pustules.
  5. Peau d’Orange – Dimpled skin, indicating lymphatic obstruction.
  6. Lanugo – Fine hair covering body of preterm infants.
  7. Telangiectasia – Small, dilated blood vessels on skin surface.
  8. Xanthomas – Yellowish deposits of fat under the skin, indicating lipid disorder.

Ophthalmological Signs

  1. Red Reflex – Red reflection from the retina, absence can indicate eye problems.
  2. White Reflex – White reflection from the retina, indicating retinoblastoma.
  3. Pseudostrabismus – False appearance of misaligned eyes.
  4. Lisch Nodules – Iris hamartomas, indicating neurofibromatosis.

Hematological Signs

  1. Battle’s Sign – Bruising behind the ear, indicating basal skull fracture.
  1. Raccoon Eyes – Periorbital bruising, indicating basal skull fracture.
  2. Subgaleal Hemorrhage – Blood accumulation between scalp and skull, often from birth trauma.
  3. Hydrocephalus – Enlargement of head due to cerebrospinal fluid accumulation.
  4. Caput Succedaneum – Swelling of the scalp in newborns, usually benign.
  5. Cephalohematoma – Blood collection under the scalp, often from birth trauma.

Metabolic Signs

  1. Reye’s Syndrome – Encephalopathy and liver dysfunction, often following aspirin use in viral illness.
  2. Fanconi Syndrome – Kidney disorder causing excess loss of various substances in urine.
  3. Mitral Facies – Facial appearance with pinkish cheeks, indicating mitral stenosis.
  4. Jaundice – Yellowing of the skin and eyes, indicating liver dysfunction.
  5. Scleral Icterus – Yellowing of the sclera, indicating jaundice.

Other Signs

  1. Milestones – Developmental assessment markers.
  2. Glasgow Coma Scale – Scale to assess consciousness level.
  3. Pierre Robin Sequence – Congenital condition with jaw, tongue, and airway abnormalities.
  4. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome – Withdrawal symptoms in newborns exposed to drugs in utero.
  5. Widow’s Peak – V-shaped hairline, often a genetic trait.
  6. Wilms’ Tumor – Kidney tumor in children.
  7. Umbilical Hernia – Protrusion of intestine through abdominal wall near umbilicus.
  8. Strawberry Tongue – Red, bumpy tongue, indicating Kawasaki disease.
  9. Thrusting Tongue – Protrusion of tongue, indicating neurological issue.
  10. Yawn – Assess neurological state.
  11. Zebra Body – Lysosomal storage disorder sign seen under electron microscope.

These signs assist in diagnosing and managing various pediatric conditions, enhancing clinical assessment.

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